Readingesl.ca - Short stories in English for ESL Students


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Vocabulary

There are some online dictionaries for English learners at other websites:

Cambridge Learner's Dictionary

Merriam-Websters Learner's Dictionary at www.learnersdictionary.com

Oxford University Press , Advanced Learner's Dictionary (OALD)

 


Words Used on this Website:

a bit (adverb) - a small amount

abandon (verb) - to leave behind with no plan to return; desert.

abolish (verb) - to do away with; put a stop to; end

aboriginal(adjective) - relating to the original race of people living in a place

about (adverb) – approximately, close to

absorb (verb) - to take in liquid through the surface

abstract (adjective) - not real, abstract art involves shapes and colours and not images of people of things

ache (verb) - hurts, is painful

achieve (verb) - to succeed, usually by working hard

according to (preposition) - said by someone. according to the government = the government says

acre (noun) - a standard unit of area used to measure land.

add(verb) - to put something else in to make larger or better

additions (noun) - something that is added

adult (adjective) - having grown up

advice (noun) - an idea or opinion that someone gives to help you decide.

affect (verb) - to cause a change in.

afford (verb) - have enough money to buy something, It can also mean to have enough time to do something.

afternoon (noun) - the time of day between noon and evening

age (verb) - to become older

AGO = Art Gallery of Ontario

agreement (noun) - a decision made between two or more people

alcoholic (adjective) - containing alcohol

alert (adjective) - quick to notice and act.

alloy (noun) – a mixture of two or more metals

a lot (adverb) - many

amount (noun) - a quantity, or a number

ancient (adjective) – from a long time ago

anniversary (noun) – the day on which an important event happened in a previous year.  Your birthday is an anniversary. 

announce (verb) - to tell or make known.

apartment (noun) - one or more rooms that people live in and that are part of a building.

apply (verb) - to ask officially for something. Example: You apply for a job. You apply to go to a college

appoint (verb) - to name someone to a particular office or duty

Arctic Ocean - one of the oceans of the world, found at the most northern part of the Earth, see map

area (noun) - 1. a region of a country or city or 2. a part of a building or a piece of land

argue (verb) - to disagree; quarrel

argued (verb) past tense of to argue

arguing (verb) present participle of to argue

arrange (verb) - to put in an order.

arrive (verb) - to come to, or reach a certain place.

arrow (noun) - a thin stick with a point on one end. An arrow is a kind of weapon.

artistic (adjective) - showing skill and imagination in creating

ashore (adverb) - move onto the land from the water. Example: We swam ashore at the beach.

asleep (adjective) - sleeping

athlete (noun) - someone who competes against other people in sports

at least – no less than

attacked (verb) past tense of to attack - to use violence to hurt or damage something

attraction (noun) - a place people want to visit

aunt (noun) - the sister of one's mother or father, or the wife of one's uncle

autumn (noun) - one of the four seasons, after summer and before winter

available (adjective) - able to be used, or possible to get

awful (adjective) - very bad or unpleasant

awhile (adverb) - for a short time.

bake (verb) - to cook in an oven using dry heat

balloon (noun) - a bag made of rubber that is filled with air and used as a toy or as a decoration.

bare (adjective) - lacking clothing or covering; naked

bark (verb) - to make the sound of a dog

barrel (noun) - a large round container with a flat top and bottom that is used to keep liquids. Barrels are often made of wood

basil (noun) - a type of aromatic herb of the mint family, used in cooking.

batter (noun) - a mixture of flour, liquid & sometimes eggs that is used to make cakes

battlefield (noun) - a place where a battle is fought

battles (noun) - a fight between two armies in a war

beach (noun) - the land at the edge of a lake, ocean, or other body of water. A beach is often formed of sand or small stones

beak (noun) - the hard part of a bird’s mouth

beam (noun) – a line of light

became (verb) past tense of to become - to begin. If the triathlon became an Olympic sport in 2000, then the 2000 Olympics was the first time that the triathlon was part of the Olympics.

becoming (verb) present participle of to become - to grow or come to be.

belongs to (phrasal verb) – If something belongs to you, you own it.

beluga whale (noun), also called a white whale, is a type of whale that lives in the Arctic

bell (noun) - a hollow metal cup shaped object that makes a ringing sound when you hit it.

benefits (verb) - does something good for you, helps you

bent (verb) past tense of to bend - to become curved, or to make something become curved

bergamot (noun) - a type of citrus fruit grown mostly in Italy

better (adjective) comparative form of good . - Good, better, best are the three forms of the adjective good

between (preposition) - during a set time period

beverage (noun) - a drink, any liquid for drinking. Juice and wine are beverages.

billion = 1,000,000,000

bite (verb) - to cut with the teeth (or similar)

bitter (adjective) - having a strong taste that is neither sweet nor sour

block (noun) - a solid piece of hard material with flat sides

blood (noun) - the red liquid which flows through the body. Blood carries oxygen and other substances that the body needs

bloom (verb) - If a plant blooms, its flowers open.

bobbing (verb) present participle of to bob - to move up and down quickly but gently

boiling (adjective) - very hot

boiling (verb) present participle of the verb to boil - liquid that is hot enough that bubbles are starting to form.

bold (adjective) - strong.  A bold colour is a strong colour.

bone (noun) - the hard parts inside of a person or animal. Your skeleton is all your bones put together.

border (noun) - the line that separates two countries

borrow (verb) - to use something that belongs to someone else and give it back later

bottom (noun) - the lowest or deepest part of something

bought (verb) - past tense of buy

bow (noun) – weapon used for shooting arrows

bowl (noun) - a deep, round dish used for holding food or liquid

breathe (verb) - to take air in and out of your lungs. Example: We need to breathe air to stay alive.

bridal (adjective) - relating to a wedding or a bride

British (adjective) - relating to Great Britain or the United Kingdom (U.K)

brownish (adjective) - close to brown in colour

brush (noun) - an object used to tidy hair, to clean, to paint, etc.

brushed (verb) past tense of to brush - the action of using a brush

built (verb) - past tense of to build

burrow (noun) - a hole or tunnel dug by certain animals for use as a hiding place or home.

bush (noun) - short, thick plant with a lot of branches

buy (verb) – to get something by paying money for it.

buzz (noun) - a low noise caused by something moving fast.

calendar (noun) - the days, weeks, and months of a year

camera (noun) - a device for making photographs

campaign (noun) – set of actions designed to achieve a result

campaign (verb) - to organize a series of activities to try to achieve something

candies (noun) plural of candy - a sweet food made of sugar, or some other sweet substance, and flavors such as chocolate.

capital (noun) - the city where the central government of a nation or state is located. Example: The capital of France is Paris

capture (verb) - to put into a lasting form; preserve

caramel (noun) - sugar that is heated until it melts and turns brown. Caramel is used to color and flavour foods

cardboard (noun) - a stiff material made of layers of paper. Boxes and signs are made of cardboard

card (noun) - a small, thick piece of paper used for sending a message to another person (also called a greeting card)

careful(adjective) - giving a lot of attention to what you are doing so you don’t make a mistake

cargo (noun) - the goods carried by a ship, airplane, or other vehicle

carrying (verb) present participle of to carry - to hold and take from one place to another.

carry out (phrasal verb) - to accomplish, to do

carve (verb) - to slice or cut into pieces. If you carve a face on a pumpkin, you cut out pieces of the pumpkin in the shape of a mouth, nose, etc

cashier (noun) – someone whose job it is to take the money when you buy something

cathedral (noun) - a large and important church

caught - verb, past tense of catch 

causes (verb) - to make something happen

celebrate (verb) - to do something enjoyable because it is a special day

cell (noun) - a single unit of animal life or plant life. The human body is made of many kinds of cells.

cemeteries (noun) plural of cemetery - a graveyard, a place for burying the dead

census (noun) - an official count of the people who live in a country or other area. A census is also used to collect information about these people, such as their job, age, or sex

cent (noun) - 1/100 of a dollar. A dollar = 100 cents.

centuries (noun) plural of century – a period of one hundred years

ceremonial (adjective) - relating to a ceremony

ceremonies (noun) plural of ceremony - an event that is performed on an important occasion

chair (noun) - a piece of furniture for one person to sit on. A chair has four legs, a back, and sometimes arms.

character (noun) - a person in a story, play, or movie

characteristic (noun) - a noticeable quality of someone or something

cheaper (adjective) comparative form of cheap - having a low price

check (verb) - to look at something to find information

chew (verb) - to crush food between your teeth

citizenship (noun) - the rights of being a citizen.

cleaner (adjective) comparative form of clean - not dirty

clean up (phrasal verb) - to make a place (or person) clean and tidy

clear (verb) - to remove

climate (noun) - the usual weather conditions in a place.

clothing (noun) - clothes like shirts and pants that you wear

coast (noun) - the land beside the sea

code (noun) – a set of letter, numbers or symbols that are used instead of words

collection (noun) - 1. when something is taken away from a place, such as garbage collection

collection (noun) - 2. a group of objects of the same type that are in one place. Example: She had a collection of coins the she kept in a special box.

collided (verb) past tense of to collide - to strike or bump into one another with force

column (noun) - a section that runs down a page, not across.

combined (verb) - added together

common (adjective) - usual; easy to find

communities (noun) plural of community - the people living in a particular area

community centres (noun) - a place where people who live in an area can meet together to play sport, go to classes, etc

competition (noun) - an event where people try to win a prize by being the best or the fastest

complain (verb) - to say that something is wrong or that you are annoyed about something

completed (verb) past tense of to complete - to finish

complex (adjective) - not simple, complicated

complicated (adjective) – difficult. Example: The instructions were too complicated for me to understand.

concrete (noun) - a hard, strong building material. Bridges and sidewalks are often made from concrete

Confederation (noun) – Canadian Confederation was the formation of the Dominion of Canada on 1 July 1867. This is the day that Canada became an independent country.

conference (noun) - a meeting of people who have the same job or similar interests. The purpose of the meeting is to share information and opinions.

connected (verb) past tense of to connect - to join two things or two places together. Example: A cable connects my printer to my computer.

conquer (verb) - to get, or overcome by force.

consists of (phrasal verb) - to be made from, or to be made from two or more things

constantly (adverb) - always, continually

constitution (noun) - the system of basic laws that govern a nation, state, or other organization

construction (noun) - the work of building a house, offices, bridge, etc

contact (noun) - when two people or two things touch.

contain (verb) – The bag contains flo ur means that the bag has flour inside it

continue (verb) – to keep happening, or to keep doing

cook (verb) - to prepare food for eating by using heat

cool (adjective) - slightly cold but not too cold

cooler (adjective) comparative form of cool - slightly cold but not too cold

copyright (noun) - the exclusive legal right to make copies of, distribute, or perform all or part of a published or recorded work for a certain extended period of time

core (noun) - the hard middle part of some fruits, it contains the seeds

correct (adjective) - the right answer

cost (noun) - the price to buy something, or how much money is needed to buy something

couch (noun) - furniture to sit on

cough (verb) - to push out air and other substances from the lungs, making a noise in the throat. People cough because of illness or when they breathe in something such as smoke or dust

council (noun) – a group of people

covers (noun) - the blankets on your bed are your covers

covers (verb) - to form a layer on the surface of something

crack (noun) - a break in something.

crack (verb) - to break, but not into separate piece s

creamy (adjective) - having the taste, color, or texture of cream. (smooth)

create (verb) - to make, to bring into being

creek (noun) – narrow river

crew (noun) – the people who work on a ship, airplane or train

criminal (adjective) - 1. relating to crime. 2. a person who is guilty of a crime.    If you have a criminal record you have been caught doing a crime and you might have been in jail.

crisp (adjective) - a little bit hard, pleasantly hard, not soft

crooked (adjective) - bent, curved,

crossed (verb) past tense of to cross - to move across something from one side to the other.

crunch (verb) - to make a noise by eating hard or crisp food

crush (verb) - make smaller or flatter by pounding or pressing

crystal (noun) - a piece of something that is solid and has a regular shape

crystalline (adjective) - something with the shape of a crystal

cub (noun) – young bear

culture (noun) - the habits, traditions, beliefs of a group of people

Cupid (noun) - the god of love in Roman mythology

curved (adjective) -to have a round, bent shape.

cutest (adjective) superlative form of cute - pleasant or nice, especially of someone young or something small

cycle (noun) - group of events that repeat at regular times

dairy (adjective) - made from milk or having to do with milk products. Milk, butter, cheese, and yogurt are dairy products.

damper (adjective) comparative form of damp - slightly wet but not too wet

data (noun) - information

deadly (adjective) - likely to cause death

decaying (verb) - in the process of becoming destroyed.

decode (verb) – to discover the meaning of a code

decorate (verb) - to make attractive by adding things to it

decrease (verb) - to become less in number, amount, size, strength, or the like; diminish

deep (adjective) - something is deep if there is a large distance from the top to the bottom

deeper (adjective) - comparative form of deep (deep, deeper, deepest)

defeat (noun) - when someone loses against someone else in a fight

defence (noun) - the act of protecting or guarding, or a thing that protects or guards. (or defense in American English)

defend (verb) - to protect from harm; guard

delicious (adjective) - having a pleasing taste or smell

democracy (noun) - a government in which the people have power in a direct way or through representatives whom they elect.

depressed (adjective) - very unhappy or very sad

dessert (noun) - sweet food that is eaten after the main part of a meal

destroy (verb) - to damage or break something so that it cannot be fixed

developed (verb) past tense of to develop - to grow or cause to grow.

diet (noun) - food and drink ordinarily consumed by a person or animal

difficult (adjective) - not easy

digital (adjective) - using information in the form of an electronic signal

dinner (noun) - the main meal of the day

dip (verb) - to put something into a liquid and then quickly take it out

directly (adverb) - in a direct way, with nothing between

dirt (noun) - loose earth or soil

discover (verb) - to find out, to see

discovery (noun) – a finding, or when someone learns something.

discuss (verb) - to talk together about something

disease (noun) - illness; sickness, a condition that causes harm to a person's health

dislike (verb) - to not like. It is the opposite of like .

distinctive (adjective) - unusual, easy to recognize because it is different from others

divide (verb) - to separate into parts or factions

DNA (abbreviation) - a substance found in cells that contains information about the characteristics of a living thing. DNA plays a part in the passing on of characteristics from parent to offspring. DNA is an abbreviation for "deoxyribonucleic acid."

document (noun) - a piece of paper, or a card, with official information on it

documented (verb) past tense of to document - to record the details of

Dominion (noun) - a name formerly applied to self-governing divisions of the British Empire

drew (verb) - past tense of to draw - to make a picture with a pen, pencil, or other writing tool

dried (verb) past tense of to dry

drifted (verb) past tense of to drift - to move slowly

drinkable (adjective) - fit to drink

during (preposition) - for a period of time, example - The sun shines during the day.

earn (verb) - to receive money for work that you have done.

earthen (adjective) - made up of earth, soil, or dirt.

easily (adverb) - without effort, pain, or trouble

eaten (verb) past participle of to eat - to take food into the body through the mouth.

edible (adjective) - safe to eat, can be eaten

elect (verb) - to choose by voting

elected (verb) past tense of to elect - to choose by voting

election (noun) - the process of choosing a person to serve in government by voting

element (noun) - 1. a basic part of any whole, 2. in science, a substance that can not be reduced to smaller chemical parts, like oxygen or helium

emit (verb) – to send out gas, light or heat into the air

emperor (noun) - the male ruler of an empire

empty (adjective) - nothing in it

encourage (verb) - to give help or support to

energetic – has a lot of energy

energy (noun) – the ability to be active. Example: Running takes a lot of energy.

energy (noun) - power or heat from sources such as the sun, wind, petroleum, natural gas, or coal that can be put to use by humans.

enjoy (verb) - to like doing something

enough (adverb) - as much as needed

environment (noun) - the air, land and water around us, the natural world

equipment (noun) – a tool or object used for a particular activity

erode (verb) - to wear away or eat into.

escape (verb) - to get free from something; to get away

especially (adverb) - more than other people or other things, or more than usual

eve (noun) - the evening or day before a holiday or other special day.

evergreen (adjective) - stays green, a plant with leaves that do not fall off in the winter

everyone (pronoun) - each and every person; everybody

evil (adjective) - very bad

except (preposition) - apart from; not including

existed (verb) – past tense of the verb to exist – to be real, or to be present

expensive (adjective) - costs a lot of money

explorer (noun) – someone who travels to places where no one has been before in order to find out what is there.

explosion (noun) - the act or noise of breaking open with great force; burst. Bombs cause explosions.

explosive (noun) - a substance that is able to cause an explosion

export (verb) - to send to another country to sell

extra (adjective) - more than usual

eyesight (noun) - the ability to see; vision

fable (noun) - short traditional story used to show people how to behave

factories (noun) plural of factory - a building or set of buildings where products are made by.

famous (adjective) - known or recognized by many people

farmland (noun) - an area of land for growing crops

fatal (adjective) - leads to death

favorite (adjective) - what is liked most, your favorite food is the food that you like best

feast (noun) - A large meal with many different types of foods

feature (noun) a distinctive property, characteristic, or quality

federal (adjective) - 1.  relating to the central government (or the government of the whole country)   2. having to do with a system of government that unites several states under a central government.

ferment (verb) - to undergo the chemical change of fermentation.

fermentation (noun) - the chemical change of a sugar into alcohol. Fermentation produces gas bubbles.

festival (noun) - a special time when people celebrate something

fill (verb) - to make full

film (noun) - a thin piece of material that is covered with a substance that changes in the light to make photographs and movies.

final (adjective) - last, ending

financial (adjective) - relating to money or how money is managed.

fined (verb) past tense of to fine - to charge someone an amount of money as punishment for breaking a rule or law.

fix up (phrasal verb) - to repair, to make something better

flag (noun) - a piece of cloth with special colors and designs used as a symbol of a country or organization.

flat (adjective) - thin and smooth and level

flattened (verb) past tense of to flatten - to make flat

flavour (noun) - the particular taste of a food or drink

flavoured (adjective) - having had a flavour added to it

flaw (noun) - a mistake or bad characteristic that stops something or someone from being perfect

flawless (adjective) - has no flaws

flesh (noun) - the part of a fruit or vegetable that you eat

flexible (adjective) - able to bend without breaking

flicker (verb) - to burn or shine in an unsteady way

float (verb) - stays on the surface of a liquid, does not sink

flow (verb) - to move in a smooth, steady stream

fog (noun) - a cloud that is near to the ground

forest (noun) - a large area of land covered with many trees and other plants.

fortieth - 40th

fortification (noun) - something that adds strength or fortifies

forty - 40

fought (verb) past form of to fight - to take part in war, or to use physical force to defeat someone.

founded (verb) past tense of to found - to set up or create; establish

founding (noun) – The date that Nunavut was founded means the date that Nunavut became a terrritory. To mark the founding of Nunavut means to celebrate the fact that Nunavut became a territory. Nunavut became a territory in 1999.

fountain (noun) - a structure that forces water up into the air as decoration

freckle (noun) - a light brown dot or mark in the skin, often brought out by exposure to sunlight.

freeze (verb) - to make into ice because of cold temperatures

froze (verb) past tense of to freeze – to turn from a liquid to a solid. When water freezes it becomes ice

frozen (adjective) - very cold, Examples: Ice is frozen water.   You can buy frozen foods at the grocery store.

fruit (noun) - the part of a plant that has seeds and flesh. Most fruits that people eat are sweet. Examples: strawberry, cherry, lemon, apple

fun (noun) - something that amuses, entertains, or pleases.

fungus (noun) - a kind of living thing that is similar to a plant but that cannot make its own food. Some kinds of fungus are mushrooms and mold.

furious (adjective) - very angry

furniture (noun) - objects such as chairs, tables, and beds used to fill a living area

furry (adjective) - covered with fur

gave up (phrasal verb) – past tense of give up - to stop

gem (noun) - a valuable stone, especially one that has been cut to be used in jewellery

gene (noun) - a tiny section of a chromosome. A gene causes a particular characteristic, such as eye color or hair color, to be passed on from parent to child.

generate (verb) - to make.

give up (phrasal verb) - to stop or to admit defeat

glacier (noun) - a large mass of ice formed in cold regions from compacted snow and very slowly moving down a slope or across land.

glisten (verb) - shines, often because it is wet

glittering (verb) present participle of to glitter - to shine brightly; sparkle

glow (verb) - to shine with bright light from being very hot

glue (noun) - a substance used to stick things together

glued (verb) past tense of to glue - to stick to something

goal (noun) – aim, or what you want to do successfully in the future . Example: Our goal is to learn English

golden (adjective) - 1. having a shiny, deep yellow color. 2. made of gold

gondola (noun) - an enclosed structure suspended from a cable, used for carrying passengers

good luck charm (noun) – something that brings good luck

government (noun) - the official group of people who run the country

governor general (noun) - representative of the Crown in a constitutional monarchy (in Canada, a representative of the Queen)

graduate (verb) - to successfully finish school or college

grandchildren (noun) plural of grandchild - the child of one's son or daughter

grandfather (noun) - the father of a person's mother or father

greedy (adjective) - having a very strong desire for ever more money or things

grew up (phrasal verb) past tense of grow up - to become an adult

grey (adjective) - a colour that is a mix of black and white.

grid (noun) - parallel horizontal and vertical lines that cross each other to form squares of equal size.

grind (verb) - to crush into very small pieces or a powder.

groan (verb) - to make a long low sound when expressing pain or unhappiness

grocery (adjective) - having to do with food products and supplies for the home as they are grouped together for sale.

ground (noun) - the surface of the Earth

grown (verb) past participle of grow - to develop, to increase, to get bigger

guest (noun) - someone who comes to visit you in your home

gums (noun) - the flesh and connective tissue covering that part of the jawbone in which the teeth are set.

habitual (adjective) - usual or typical.  An habitual action is something that you do often.

half - one half = ½

handles (noun) - a part of something that use to hold it or open it, example: Turn the door handle to open the door.

harbour (noun) - a safe area of water where people can leave their boats

hardens (verb) – becomes hard

hardy (adjective) - strong enough to deal with bad conditions or difficult situations.

harm (verb) – to hurt or damage

hatches (verb) plural of to hatch - If an egg hatches, it is broken open by the baby creature being born

healthy (adjective) - 1. You are healthy if you are physically well, not sick.  2. having to do with a good mind and body

herb (noun) - a plant used in cooking to add flavour to food or drink

herbal (adjective) - relating to herbs

herd (noun) - any group of animals that feed and travel together

hexagon (noun) - a shape with 6 sides

hexagonal (adjective) - with 6 sides

hibernate (verb) - to sleep through the winter in a den or burrow to save energy. Bears, snakes, and certain other animals hibernate

hidden, past participle of the verb to hide - Something is hidden if it is in a place where you can’t see it.

hike (verb) - to take a long walk in the country for fun or exercise

hold (verb) - to contain within a particular space

holiday (noun) - a day or period of freedom from work or school; time off

hollow (adjecive) – Something is hollow if there is nothing inside it.

homework (noun) - schoolwork that is to be done at home rather than at school

honour (verb) - To honour is to show great respect for someone or something.

hop (verb) - to move by jumping

horizontal (adjective) - level and flat, or parallel to the ground or the bottom of the page

horrible (adjective) – very bad or very unpleasant

horseback (adjective) - on the back of a horse

host (noun) - someone who organizes a party and invites the guests

host (verb) - to act as the host of an event or party

hotel (noun) - a place with many rooms and beds where people pay money to sleep and eat meals

hungry (adjective) - feeling a need or want for food.

hurt (verb) - to cause pain or harm to

icing (noun) - a sweet covering for cake. Icing is usually made of sugar, butter, and flavoring. It is sometimes called frosting.

identical (adjective) - the same in every way

identify (verb) – to recognize, to know who someone is (or what something is)

ignore (verb) - to pay no attention to someone or something

illegal (adjective) - against the law or rules

image (noun) - a picture of a person or thing

immediately (adverb) - right away; at once

immigrant (noun) - a person who moves from the country where he or she was born to another country.

immigration (noun) - the act of coming to live in a new country

important (adjective) - having great meaning or value

improving (verb) - present participle of to improve - to make better

impure (adjective) - not pure, but mixed with other substances

impurities (noun) plural of impurity - when something is impure

included (verb) past tense of to include - to be part of something larger

including (preposition) - used to show that someone or something is part of a larger group

inexpensive (adjective) - does not cost a lot of money. It is the opposite of expensive .

in fact (adverb)- in reality,  actually

infectious (adjective) - able to be spread to others

infestation (noun) – If you have a bedbug infestation, then you have lots of bedbugs in your home.

information (noun) – the facts about something

infuse (noun) - to soak in liquid

infusion (noun) - the outcome of steeping plants with water or oil

ingredients (noun) - the different things that go into a food

inherit (verb) - [in genetics] to pass down from one generation to another

initials (noun) - the first letter in a person's names.

injure (verb) - to harm or damage

insect (noun) – small creature with 6 legs,

inside (preposition) - in the inner part of; within

instead (adverb) - in place of; rather

interesting (adjective) - causing interest or attention

introduced (verb), past tense of to introduce – to make something exist for the first time

invaded (verb) past tense of to invade - to enter a country by force in order to take control of it

invader (noun) - someone who enter a country by force in order to take control of it

invasion (noun) - when an army enters a country by force

invent (verb) - to think of and make something that has never been made before by anyone

invisible (adjective) - can't be seen

invited (verb) past tense of to invite - to ask someone to come to an event or a party

Irish (adjective) - of or having to do with Ireland, or its people or language

itchy (adjective) - If a part of your body is itchy, it feels uncomfortable and you want to scratch it

jetski (noun) - or jet ski - a small motorized vehicle for one person that looks like a scooter but it used on water

jeweller (or jeweler) (noun) - someone who makes or sells jewellery

jewellery (or jewelry) (noun) - objects made from gold, silver and/or valuable stones that you wear for decoration

job (noun) - a regular position for which a person is paid to do particular duties

journey (noun) – a trip that you take

jump (verb) - to push yourself into the air with a strong movement of your legs

jury (noun) - a body of persons summoned to a court of law who are sworn to hear evidence and give a true verdict in a case

kayak (noun) - a boat, used by the Inuit people, that is slim with a light frame and is pointed at both ends. Kayaks are covered with a waterproof skin that may be pulled tight around the waist of the person inside. a boat that looks like this and is used in sports and for fun.

kept (verb) past tense of to keep - 1. to continue, 2. to hold onto, not give away or throw out

kg = kilogram

kin (noun) - relatives

km = kilometre

knife (noun) - a tool with a handle and a thin, sharp blade that is used for cutting

knowledge (noun) - what you know, information and understanding that you have

laid (verb) past tense of the verb to lay - if an animal lays eggs, it produces them out of its body

landlord (noun) - The owner of the house or apartment that you rent is a landlord.

larvae (noun) plural of larva - an insect after it hatches from an egg and before it changes into its adult form. Larvae do not have wings and look like worms. Most kinds of insects spend part of their lives as larvae.

lately (adverb) - recently

lawn (noun) - an area of grass. A front lawn is the area of grass in front of a house

lawyer (noun) - a person whose job is to give legal advice and to speak for people in court.

lay (verb) - 1. if an animal lays eggs, it produces them out of its body, 2. to put something down carefully

layer (noun) - a covering of something that lies over a surface

leader (noun) - a person who directs or guides others or who has the most power in a group

lean (verb) - to bend in a certain direction

leg (noun) - the part of the body between the hip and the foot

legal (adjective) - relating to the law

legend (noun) - a story that has been handed down from an earlier time. Many people know these stories, but they cannot be proven true.

leprechaun – a type fairy in Irish stories, usually an older man dressed in red or green who likes mischief. If you catch a leprechaun, he will grant you three wishes.

limits (verb) - confines, restricts, controls something to make it smaller

link (noun) - a connection, or anything that joins or connects

liquid (noun) - a substance, like water, that is not solid and that can be poured.

local (adjective) – Local means in (or near, or belonging to) the area in which you live.  

located (verb) past tense of to locate - where they are found

lodge (noun) - a small house in the country

logic (noun) - reasoning and careful thought

logs (noun) plural of log - a thick piece of wood from a tree

longevity (noun) - long life

look after (phrasal verb) - to take care of

loon (noun) – a large black and white bird that lives near water. Loons dive under the water to catch fish. Loons can be seen on many Canadian lakes

loose (adjective) - not restrained or confined; free. Example: If your tooth is loose, you can move it back and forth with your finger.

lots , or a lot - a large number. If you have a lot of money then maybe you are rich!

lotus (noun) - a plant with large leaves, it grows in water.

louse (noun) - singular of lice.  One louse, two lice.

luggage (noun) – bags and cases that you carry with you when you are travelling 

luxury (noun) - something which gives you a lot of pleasure but which you can’t often do

lyrics (noun) - the words of a song

made (verb) - past tense of to make

made up of (verb) – contain. Example: Paragraphs are made up of many sentences

mail (verb) - to use the postal service to send a letter or package to someone

maintain (verb) - to keep in good condition

major (adjective) - important

male (adjective) - A male runner is a runner who is a man.

mango (noun) - a tropical fruit that has a green skin and is orange inside

marine (adjective) - found in the sea, or has something to do with the sea

mark (verb) – If you mark an event, you do something to celebrate it.

match (noun) - game or sports competition

matching (verb) present participle of to match - to bring things together because they are the same

mate (verb) - to come together to produce babies.

math (noun) - the short form of mathematics

meal (noun) - when you eat, or the food that you eat at that time.  Example: Lunch is a meal that we eat in the middle of the day.

meaningful (adjective) - 1. useful, important 2. having a clear purpose that people can understand

measure (verb) - to find the amount of something

medical (adjective) - relating to medicine, such as a medical student, or a medical treatment

melt (verb) - to turn into liquid. Example: When it is warm, ice melts to become water

melted (verb) past tense of to melt

memorial (noun) - [as in war memorial] an object built to help people remember an important person or event

memorial (adjective) - [as in memorial service or ceremony] A memorial ceremony is a ceremony in remembrance of someone or some event.

memories (noun) plural of memory - an experience, person, or thing that one remembers

mess (noun) - a state of being dirty or not neat.

message (noun) – information or idea

messenger (noun) – a person who passes messages (information) from one place to another

messy (adjective) - not neat; in a mess

met (verb) - past tense of to meet - to come together by plan or by chance. If a group of people meet, they come to a place in order to do something.

mid – in the middle of

might be – may be

military (adjective) - relating to the army, navy or air force such as a military airplane

military (noun) - The military is a country's army, navy and air force. 

millennium (noun) – a period of 1000 years. The change from the year 1999 to the year 2000 became known as the Millenium.

million - one million = 1,000,000

mine (verb) - to dig out of the ground

mined (verb) - past tense of to mine.

mineral (noun) - a valuable or useful substance that is usually dug out of the ground

miserable (adjective) - sad, unhappy, unpleasant

mitt (noun) - a mitten. A type of glove with a single part for all the fingers except the thumb which is in a separate part.

mixture (noun) - when you have two or more ingredients added together

moccasin (noun) - a soft leather shoe or slipper without a heel. Moccasins were first made and worn by American Indians

modern-day (adjective) - relating to current or recent times, modern

monarch (noun) - one who reigns over a country or territory, example - a king or queen

monarchy (noun) - a nation or government ruled by or in the name of a monarch. A monarch's power is either unlimited or limited by a constitution.

mostly (adverb) - for the greater part, almost all

mould (noun) (also spelled mold) – a container that is used to make something in a particular shape

mountainous (adjective) - has lots of mountains

mug (noun) - a large, heavy cup with a handle, often used for hot drinks

munch (verb) - to eat something in a noisy way

municipal (adjective) – belonging to a city or town

municipality (noun) – usually means a town, or a city

mush (noun) - a thick, soft substance

mushroom (noun) - a kind of fungus with a stem and a cap. Some mushrooms can be eaten as a vegetable and others are poisonous.

mutiny (noun) – when a group of people (usually sailors or soldiers) refuse to obey orders

myth (noun) - ancient story, usually about gods or brave people  or a story or group of stories that form part of the traditional knowledge of a society. Myths often use imaginative plots and characters to explain how the world began and why nature and people behave the way they do.

mythology (noun) – myths, or collection of myths from a culture

narwhal (noun) - a type of whale that lives in the Arctic

nasty (adjective) - bad, unkind, angry

native (adjective) - If a plant is native to a place, that is where it grew originally

naturally occurring (expression) - occurs in nature, not man made

naval (adjective) - of the navy

navigate (verb) - successfully sail (or go by boat) along a waterway

nearby (adjective) - located close at hand; not far away

nectar (noun) - the sweet liquid a plant makes that attracts insects and birds. Bees use nectar to make honey.

nice (adjective) - enjoyable; pleasant

noise (noun) - a sound.

Norse (adjective) – belonging to Norway or its people, language or culture. It can also refer to medieval Scandinavia . Medieval means in the years 500 to 1500.

northern (adjective) - in the north, or from the north.  Example: The Yukon is in the northern part of Canada.

nuisance (noun) - a person or thing that annoys

Nunavut (noun) – one of the three territories in Canada   see map

nursery rhyme (noun) - a simple traditional song or poem for children

nut (noun) - a large seed that people or animals can eat that grows in a hard shell. Example: peanut, cashew, walnut

occasion (noun) - a time when something happens. Example: We met on several occasions

occur (verb) - to happen,

ocean (noun) - a part of the large body of salt water that covers most of the earth's surface

OHIP = Ontario Health Insurance Program

olive (noun) - a small fruit with green or black skin. Olives grow on trees and are used to make oil for cooking

one third = 1/3

on foot – walk

onion (noun) - a round vegetable with a sharp taste and smell. Onions grow under the ground

online (adjective) - connected to a computer or computer network

onto (preposition) - to a position on or on top of.

oregano (noun) - a plant related to mint and marjoram that is dried and used as a seasoning

original (adjective) - first, existing since the beginning

other than - except, or not including a particular thing

oven (noun) - a piece of equipment that you cook food in. An oven has a large metal box with a door.

overgrow (verb) - to grow over with a thick cover of leaves.

overgrown (verb) - past participle of overgrow

overlooking (verb) - to have a view of something from above

oxygen (noun) - a gas that is part of air. It has no color or smell. Most living things need oxygen to live.

pain (noun) - bad or terrible feeling in your body that is usually caused by injury or illness

pair (noun) - two things that are the same and are used together. Examples, a pair of gloves, a pair of socks

palette knife (noun) - a special knife used by artists to mix paints

parachute (noun) - a large device made of strong, thin cloth that opens up like an umbrella. A parachute slows the fall of a person who jumps from an airplane. It can also be used in the same way for something that is dropped from an airplane

parade (noun) - groups of people moving down a public street together to celebrate something.

parasite (noun) - a plant, animal, or fungus that lives on or in another living thing, called the host. A parasite gets its food and energy from the host organism

parasitic (adjective) – A parasitic insect is an insect that uses another animal as a source of food.

parents (noun) - Your mother and your father are your parents.

park (noun) - an area of public land that anyone can use for rest and enjoyment

parliament (noun) - a group of people who make the laws for a country

party game - a game that is fun to play at a party, or when there is a group of people playing together

passageway (noun) - a long narrow space that connects one place to another

pasta (noun) – Spaghetti & other noodles are kinds of pasta

paste (noun) - a food that has been pounded until it is soft and smooth

pastries (noun), plural of pastry - a small cake

patron saint - This is a saint that is believed to be the protector or guardian of a group of people. St. Patrick is the patron saint of Ireland - this means that many Irish people believe that St. Patrick is the saint who protects Ireland

peak (noun) - the highest part of a mountain, or the highest part of anything.

peck (noun) - a unit of measurement of grains and other dry things. A peck is equal to eight quarts, one fourth of a bushel, or 8.81 liters. (not used very much any more)

peel (verb) - to remove the outer covering from something

pepper (noun) - a hollow fruit that varies in size, shape, and color (usually red, green or yellow). Peppers can have either a hot or sweet taste. They are eaten as a vegetable or used to add flavor to other foods.

perhaps (adverb) - it is possible that; maybe

personality (noun) - all of the qualities of a person that make that person different from others.

persuade (verb) – If someone persuades you to do something, they get you to do it.  If a candidate persuades you to vote for them, then you vote for them. 

phoning (verb)  present participle of to phone - to call on the telephone

photographer (noun) - a person whose job is to take photographs.

photography (noun) - the art or practice of taking and making photographs

phrase (noun) - a group of words forming part of a sentence but not having both a subject and a verb. "In the kitchen" and "taking a shower" are phrases

physics (noun) – the scientific study of natural forces such as emergy, heat, light

pick (verb) - to gather by pulling off or out. Example: He picks apple from the apple tree.

pick up (phrasal verb) - to pick something up means to get something. Example: You pick up things that you drop on the floor . or, Parents often pick up their kids from school.

pickled (noun) - preserved with salt and a liquid such as vinegar.

pie (noun) - a cooked dish that has a crust made of dough and a thicker layer of fruit, meat, or something else on top of it. Sometimes it has another layer of crust on top of that.

pierced (verb) past tense of to pierce - to pass or go through with or as if with something sharp

pine (noun) - a tree with soft wood and leaves shaped like needles. The leaves stay green all year.

pink (adjective) - a color (red + white)

plastic (noun) - an artificial substance made from certain kinds of chemicals that can be shaped when soft.

point (noun) -a unit used for keeping score in certain sports or achieving a grade in school

poison (noun) - a substance that will make you sick or kill you if you eat or drink it

poisonous (adjective) - containing poison

political (adjective) - having to do with the study or practice of politics, politicians, or government.

politician (noun) - a person who holds political office

polluted (adjective) - If air is polluted it is dirty. Polluted water is not safe to drink.

poorly (adverb) - badly, not well

popular (adjective) - liked by many people

port (noun) - a place where ships load, or the town near this place

postal (adjective) - having to do with the mail service

potted (adjective) - a potted plant is one that is sold growing in a flower pot.

poured (verb) past tense of to pour - If you pour a liquid you are making it flow from one container to another

power (noun) - 1. energy that can do work, 2. electricity

precious (adjective) - 1. of great worth or value. or 2. loved or dear to a person

prefer (verb) - to choose above others as the best liked or most wanted.

prepare (verb) - to get ready

pretend (verb) - to behave as if something is true when it’s not

Prime Minister (noun) - The head of a parliamentary government

probably (adverb) – not 100% sure, but close to; or something is very likely to happen or likely to be true

process (noun) – a series of actions that you take in order to achieve a result

production (noun) - when you make or grow something

protect (verb) - to defend or keep safe from danger or harm

provide (verb) - to supply (or give) something to someone/something

provincial (adjective) - belonging to the province

public (adjective) - for everyone to use, open to everyone

puppy (noun) - a young dog

pure (adjective) - not mixed with anything else; made of only one substance

puzzle (noun) - a toy or problem that you solve by thinking or by arranging letters, words, numbers, or objects

quickly (adverb) - in a short time; rapidly

rain (noun) - drops of water that form in the clouds and fall from the sky to the earth

rare (adjective) - happening very infrequently; uncommon

ray of light (noun) – narrow beam of light

realize (verb) - to notice or understand something

rebuild (verb) - to build again; repair.

recognize (verb) - to know from earlier experience

rectangular (adjective) - having the shape of a rectangle ( a shape with 4 sides)

recycling (noun) - when paper, glass or plastic is put through a process so that it can be used again.

reflected (verb) past tense of to reflect – to send back. If a surface reflects light it sends light back.

refreeze (verb) - to freeze again

region (noun) - a particular area in a country or in the world.

regulation (noun) - a rule or law that controls or directs people's actions

related (adjective) - connected, if two or more people are related, they belong to the same family

religion (noun) - a set of beliefs that includes a belief about god or gods.

religious (adjective) - having to do with religion

remains (verb) - stays, is still there

remember (verb) - If you remember something, then you think about it again.

remembrance (noun) - when you remember and show respect for someone

remove (verb) - to take away, to get rid of

renovate (verb) - to put in good condition by making many repairs

rent (noun) - the money that you give to the owner of a property for the use of a space.

repair (verb) - to put something in good condition again after being broken; fix

representative (noun) - someone who serves in the place of another

require (verb) - to make something necessary. When someone requires you to do something, you must do it.

residents (noun) – A resident of a city is someone who lives in that city.

responsible – If you are responsible for something, then it is your duty to take care of it. Example: Parents are responsible for looking after their children.

responsibilities (noun) - If something is your responsibility then it is your job or your duty to do it.

restaurant (noun) - a place where you go to eat. In a restaurant, you pay to have a meal that is served to you.

restore (verb) - to bring something back to an earlier or normal condition.

resulting (adjective) - caused by the event or situation that was just mentioned

riding (noun) - in government, a place or geographic area. Example: Canada is divided into 308 federal ridings.

rigid (adjective) - difficult or impossible to bend; stiff

ripe (adjective) - finished growing and ready to pick and eat

risked (verb)  past tense of to risk - might lose

roast (adjective) - something that is roasted

roast (verb) - to cook or bake with dry heat in an oven or over an open fire.

role (noun) - the part someone plays, job

romantic (adjective) - relating to the feelings of love

root (noun) - the part of a plant that grows under the ground. Roots take in water and food, and they hold the plant in the soil

rose (noun) - a flower that has a sweet smell, comes in many colors, and grows on a bush. There are often sharp points on the stem of a rose.

rotting (verb) - in the process of decaying

route (noun) – the path that you follow to get from one place to another

row (noun) - a group arranged in a straight line side by side

sacred (adjective) - having to do with religion

saint (noun) - a person who has been recognized by the Roman Catholic Church as having lived a holy life. (abbreviation: St. or Ste.)

sales (noun) - the amount of something that is sold

sandcastle (noun) - a toy castle made on a beach by molding wet sand.

sandstorm (noun) - a strong wind in a desert carrying a large amount of sand

sauce (noun) - a thick liquid served on or with food to add flavor.

scalp (noun) - the skin on the top of your head

scanner (noun) – a piece of equipment that copies information to a computer

scarves (noun) plural of scarf - a long piece of cloth worn around the neck, head, or shoulders

scary (adjective) - causing fear; frightening

scenery (noun) - 1. the attractive, natural things that you see in the countryside or 2. the way the land looks in a particular place

score (noun) - the total points earned in a game or test.

scoring (verb) - present participle of to score - to get points in a game or test

scratch (verb) - 1. to rub your skin with your fingernails, 2. to cause damage to a surface with something sharp

seal (noun) - an animal that lives near the sea

seams (noun) - a line of sewing where two pieces of cloth have been joined

search (verb) - to look

secret (adjective) - If something is secret then people don't know about it.

seed (noun) - the small part of a plant with flowers that grows into a new plant

seedless (adjective) - has no seeds

seized (verb) past tense of to seize - to take something away (sometimes by force)

selfless (adjective) - having or showing an unselfish lack of concern for oneself and one's interests.

sensor (noun) – a piece of equipment that can find (and measure) heat, light, etc

settlement (noun) - an area newly occupied by colonists or settlers

sewage (noun) – dirty water & waste from houses and other buildings that is carried away in sewers

sewers (noun) – underground pipes or channels that carry sewage

shade (noun) - the dark area caused when light is blocked

shallow (adjective) - not deep.

shamrock (noun) - a clover plant with leaves that have three parts. It is the national emblem of Ireland.

sharp (adjective) - having a thin edge or a fine point for cutting

shell (noun) - the hard outer covering around a bird's egg, a nut, or the body of some animals.

sheltered (adjective) - protected

shipped (verb) past tense of to ship - to place on and send by ship, truck, or other vehicle

shipyard (noun) - a place where ships are built or repaired

shop (noun) - a small store

shore (noun) - the area of land along the edge of an ocean, lake or river

shoreline (noun) - the edge of a sea or a lake or a wide river

shrub (noun) - large plant that is smaller than a tree

sick (adjective) - not healthy, ill

sigh (verb) - to breathe out slowly & noisily, often because you are annoyed or unhappy

sign (noun) - a printed direction, notice, or warning such as a stop sign, or sign on the front of a store that tells you the name of the store

signed (verb) past tense of to sign - to write your name on something to show that you agree to it.

silence (noun) - no sound

silly (adjective) - without good sense or without serious meaning

similar (adjective) - being almost the same as something else

since (adverb) - from then until now

single (adjective) - only one

sinking (verb) present participle of to sink - to fall slowly to a lower level

site (noun) - a place for a town, city, building, or event.

skate (noun) - a shoe with a blade attached to the bottom. Skates are used to move on ice

skate (verb) - to move along on ice skates or roller skates.

skating (verb) - present participle of to skate

sketch (noun) - a drawing or painting that was done in a hurry or without detail. Sketches are sometimes done to prepare for later work.

skill (noun) - an ability to do something well, especially because of training or practice.

skin (noun) - 1. the outer layer of your body, 2. the outer covering of some fruits and vegetables

sliced (adjective) - cut into thin flat pieces

slices (noun) - thin, flat pieces of something larger

slide (verb) - to move smoothly over a surface

slightly (adverb) - a little bit

slipper (noun) - a small, flat shoe that is easy to put on and take off. Slippers usually are indoor shoes.

slow (adjective) - taking a long time

slowly (adverb) - not moving fast

smell (verb) - to sense something by means of the nose

smooth (adjective) - has no lumps in it

snake (noun) - a long, narrow animal that has smooth skin and no legs. Snakes hunt and eat other animals. Some snakes are poisonous

sneeze (verb) - to let out a sudden, loud burst of air through the mouth and nose.

snuggled (verb) past tense of to snuggle - to move into a warm, comfortable position

soccer - In North America soccer is what everyone else calls football

social (adjective) - likes to be with others and not alone

soil (noun) - the top layer of the earth's surface; dirt

sold (verb) past tense of to sell - to give something to someone who gives you money for it

solution (noun) - the answer

solve (verb) - to find an answer to; find a way to fix.

sometimes (adverb) - at times, now and then

sore (adjective) - painful.

sour cream (noun) - cream or milk that has been soured using bacteria

source (noun) – where something comes from.

southwestern (adjective) - of, located in, or coming from the southwest

sovereign (noun) - a monarch or other royal ruler

sparkles (verb) - to shine brightly in the light

special (adjective) – used for a particular purpose

species (noun) - a group of living things that are the same in many important ways. Members of a species can produce young together.

spent (verb) - past tense, and past participle, of to spend - 1. to use time doing a particular activity, 2. to use money to buy something

spine (noun) - 1. A strong, sharp-pointed, usually woody outgrowth from a stem or leaf; a thorn, 2. the long structure of bones down the center of your back, which supports your body

spirits (noun) – something that people believe exists but doesn’t have a body, like a ghost

spray (verb) - to apply a spray to a surface, or to force liquid out of a container in many small drops

spray (noun) - many small drops of liquid blown through the air

spray paint (noun) - paint that is sprayed onto surfaces

spread (verb) - to cover an area of something

spring (noun) - one of the four seasons, after winter and before summer

sprinkle (verb) - to drop or scatter in small pieces

square (noun) - 1. place, an open area with buildings around it, 2. A shape with four sides that are all the same length.

stabilize (verb) - to make firm, steady, or stable

stables (noun) - building where horses were kept

stadium (noun) - a large open area with seats around it, used for playing and watching sports

statue (noun) - a piece of art that is made out of stone, metal, or other material. Statues are often in the shape of humans or animals

steam (noun) - water in the form of a gas that you can see in the air when you boil or heat water.

steamed (adjective) - something that has been heated by having steam added to it.

steel (noun) - a hard, strong metal made by mixing iron and another metal. It is used to make machines, cars, tools, and many other things

steep (verb) - to soak in liquid

stem (noun) - the main part of a plant that supports the branches, leaves, and other parts

stimulant (noun) - something that temporarily arouses or speeds up a physical or mental activity or process.

sting (verb) to make a tiny hole in the skin that causes pain.

stinger (noun) - the sharp, pointed part of certain animals and plants that sometimes carries a poison. The stinger is used to wound

stirred (verb) past tense of to stir - to mix with a spoon

store (verb) - to gather and keep for future use

stored (verb) past tense of to store - to gather and keep for future use

storey or story (noun) - floor or level in a building.  British English: one storey or two storeys.  American English: one story or two stories

strand (noun) – a long, thin piece of something., example a strand of hair

strategy (noun) - a method or plan of action that you intend to use for some purpose.

stripes (noun) - a long straight area of colour

structure (noun) - the way that parts of something are arranged or put together

struggle (verb) - try to try very hard to do something difficult

study (verb) - to learn

study (noun) - learning, when you learn about a subject

style (noun) - a way of doing something

subtropical (adjective) - from parts of the world that aren’t too hot or too cold

sugar (noun) - a sweet substance made from plants. There is a lot of sugar in candy

sung (verb) past tense of to sing

surface (noun) - the top of something, or the outside of something.

surrounded (verb) past tense of to surround - to be on all sides at the same time. The words by or with usually come after the word surrounded. Example: The sidewalk was very crowded. I was surrounded by people

surrounded by - If you are surrounded by something then there is lots of it near you.

surrounding (adjective) - relating to everywhere around something

survive (verb) - to continue to live after something very dangerous has happened

swat (verb) to hit abruptly, as with an open hand or fly swatter; slap; smack

sweep (verb) - to clear the floor of dirt or dust, often with a broom

sweeten (verb) - to make sweet or sweeter in taste usually by adding sugar

symbol (noun) - a sign or an object that represents something

symbolic (adjective) - serving as a symbol

system (noun) - a particular way or method of doing something

tail (noun) - a part of an animal's body that sticks out from the back end

take turns - If two or more people take turns, one person goes first, then another person goes, then another. One person at a time

talent (noun) - a natural skill or ability.

tall (adjective) - being a certain height

taste (verb) - to have a particular flavor

tax (noun) - money that you pay to a government. The government uses the money to provide services.

team (noun) - a group of people who play a sport or game against another group of players

technology (noun) - knowledge having to do with the use of science and industry to help solve common problems of life.

temperatures (noun) – Temperature is how hot or cold something is.

temperate (adjective) - having neither extremely hot nor extremely cold temperatures and mild weather.

temporary (adjective) - happening only for a short time

tempted (verb) past tense of the verb to tempt - to make someone want to do something

terrace (noun ) - 1. a flat surface covered with brick or concrete outside of a building. 2. a flat, raised section of ground.

terrible (adjective) - very bad

territory (noun) - an area of land that belongs to and is governed by a country

thick (adjective) - A think liquid is one that does not flow very easily.

thick (adjective) - large from one side of a surface to the other side; not thin; wide.

thin (adjective) - small when measured from one side to the other or when measured around the outside; not thick.

throat (noun) - the part of the body through which food and air pass to the stomach and lungs

through (preposition) - in one side or end of something and out the other

tidings (noun) - news

tightly (adverb) - in a firm, close, or secure way.

tile (noun) - a square, flat piece

tilt (noun) - a leaning or sloping position

tiny (adjective) - very small

tired (adjective) - wanting or needing sleep or rest.

title (noun) - a name of something such as a book, movie, or piece of music

together (adverb) - with someone else, or in a group

tomorrow (noun) - the day after today

tongue (noun) - the organ in the mouth used for tasting and swallowing and also in speaking.

topping (noun) - food that is put on top of other food in order to give it more flavour

totem (noun) - an object which is respected by a group of people

totem pole (noun) - tall wooden pole with symbols, part of the tradition of west coast Native Canadians

tour (verb) - to walk around, or to travel around a place

tourist (noun) - a person who is traveling for pleasure

towards (preposition) – in the direction of something or somebody

tower (noun) - a tall, narrow building or part of a building that rises high above the ground

tradition (noun) - a custom or a way of behaving that has continued for a long time,  the beliefs and ways of doing things that are passed down from parents to children.

traditional (adjective) - relating to the customs that a group has followed for a long time

traditionally (adverb) - following the customs that a group has followed for a long time.

traffic (noun) – the cars & trucks using a road

trial (noun) - in law, an examination of evidence presented to a judicial tribunal, usually in order to determine a person's guilt or innocence

transit (noun) - a system for carrying people or goods by vehicle from one place to another. Public buses, trains, and subway trains are all forms of transit.

transportation (noun) - buses, trains, cars, etc. used for getting from one place or another

trap (noun) - something to catch animals with

travel (verb) - to go from place to place

travels (noun) - the activity of traveling

treat (noun) - something special

treat (verb) - to relieve or cure (a disease or illness)

treated (verb) past tense of to treat

tributary (noun) - a river that flows into a larger river. Bonanza Creek is a tributary of the Klondike River. This means that the water in Bonanza Creek flows into the Klondike River.

trip (noun) - the act of traveling from one place to another.

tropical (adjective) - from or in the hottest parts of the world

trying (verb) present participle of to try

turn on (phrasal verb) - to cause something to begin. Example: Turn on the lights if it is too dark to see.

turned back (phrasal verb) – past ten se of turn back , to return in the direction that you came from

twelve = 12

twenty = 20

twice (adverb) - two times

twig (noun) a small branch of a tree or other plant

twist (verb) - to wind around something else

typical (adjective) - having all the qualities that you expect in a particular person, place or thing

ugly (adjective) - not pleasant to look at.

uncomfortable (adjective) - not able to feel relaxed in your mind or body; not feeling comfortable.

underground (adjective) - located, living, or taking place beneath the earth's surface.

unfortunately (adverb, sentence modifier) - unluckily

unique (adjective) - being the only one of its type

unite (verb) - to join together as a group, or to make people join together as a group

unreadable (adjective) - not able to be read, as handwriting; illegible

unstable (adjective) - not steady; not securely fixed.

unsuccessful (adjective) - not achieving what was wanted

upper (adjective) - at the top; higher in place, or level.

usually (adverb) - in the way that most often happens. Example: I usually go to school at 9:00.

vandalism (noun) - destruction or damage of property that is done on purpose

variations (noun) - differences, something that is slightly different from the usual form.

vary (verb) - to change from something else, or to be different from other things.

vegetable (noun) - a plant you can eat, examples: potatos, corn and onions.

vegetation (noun) - plants or plant life in a particular place.

veil (noun) - a thin piece of cloth worn over the head, shoulders, and face. A veil is used as a decoration, or to hide a person's face.

vertical (adjective) - straight up and down.

veteran (noun) - someone who was in the army or navy during a war

vine (noun) - a plant having a long, thin, woody stem that climbs up a support or creeps along the ground.

violence (noun) - extreme force, when someone tries to hurt or kill someone

virus (noun) - a tiny living thing that lives in other living things and causes diseases

visited (verb) past tense of to visit - to see a place and spend a short time there

vital (adjective) - necessary to life

vitamin (noun) - any of a number of natural or synthetic substances required in human nutrition to regulate metabolism and maintain health

vote (verb) - to show your choice or opinion in an election or meeting

waddle (verb) - walks with short steps while moving from side to side

wag (verb) - to cause to move quickly up and down or from side to side

walrus (noun) - a large marine animal with tusks and whiskers

warm (adjective) - having some heat; not cold

warmer (adjective) - comparative form of warm - not cold, but not hot. Example: I wear a hat to keep my head warm in the winter

waterfall (noun) - a stream of water that falls from a higher place; cascade.

waterway (noun) - a river or canal

weapon (noun) - an object used to attack or defend. Guns are weapons

wee (adjective) - very small or tiny

weigh (verb) - to have a particular amount of weight.

westward (adverb) – towards the west

whip (verb) - to beat eggs or cream.

whipped cream (noun) - cream that has been beaten until it is very thick.

whole (adjective) - as a single thing and not in pieces,

widens (verb) - to become wider

wild (adjective) - something that lives or grows in its natural environment

wind farm - A wind farm is a place where many wind turbines have been built.

wind generated power - electricity that is made using the wind

wing (noun) - a part of the body of some animals that they use for flying. Insects and birds have wings

witch (noun) - a woman who is believed to have magic powers. Witches are more often thought to do evil things than good things

woke up (verb) past tense of wake up - to stop sleeping

wooden (adjective) - made of wood

worry (verb) - to feel fear or anxiety

worth (noun) - the value of a thing

written (verb) past participle of write

wreath (noun) - a ring or circle of flowers or leaves

yeast (noun) - tiny, single cells of certain fungi that are used to make bread, alcohol, and some medicines

yolk (noun) - the yellow or orange part of an egg



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